HOW SIM CARD WORKS

A SIM card, also known as a subscriber identity module, is a subscriber identity

module application on a smart-card that stores data for GSM/CDMA Cellular telephone subscribers. Such data includes user identity, network authorization data, personal security keys, contact lists and stored text messages.
Security features include Authentication and encryption to protect data and prevent eavesdropping.
Functionality of the SIM card
The SIM card performs
the following valuable functions:
1) Identification of a subscriber: The IMSI programmed on the SIM card, is the
identity of a subscriber. Each IMSI is mapped to a mobile number and

provisioned on the HLR to allow a subscriber to be identified.
2) Authentication of a subscriber: This is a process, where, using the
authentication algorithm (COMP128V3 for 2/2.5 G GSM, CAVE for CDMA and
Mileage for 3G) on the SIM card, a unique response is provided by each
subscriber based on IMSI, Ki (stored on SIM) and RAND (provided by network).
By matching this response with values computed on the network a legal
subscriber is logged on to the network and he or she can now make use the
services of the mobile service provider.
3) Storage: To store phone numbers and SMS.
4) Applications: The SIM Tool Kit or GSM 11.14 standard allows creating
applications on the SIM to provide basic information on demand and other
applications for m-commerce, chatting, cell broadcast, phonebook backup,
location based services etc.

Typical Diagram of Sim Card
A Sim Card have six pads that also corresponds to the six SIM connectors pins, but only five has totally have connection on the entire layout.
SIM DATA – this is a digital data that being stored on a SIM memory
SIM Clock – this is a clock frequency signal that being synchronize to the digital data to create data signal in order transfer or sends and receive data information.
SIM Reset – this is also a frequency signal that triggers or reset all synchronization process.
VSIM B+ Supply Voltage- This a power supply voltage used to activated the SIM circuit.
SIM Ground – a ground line voltage
The smartcard with Subscriber identity module application is generally known as
SIMCARD. But, In reality, the SIM is effectively a mass-market smart card.
PIN and PUK:
PIN –Personal Identification Number
2 PINs exist (PIN 1 and PIN2)
Limited attempts on PIN access
PUK –PIN Unblocking Code
Resetting PUK, resets PIN and the attempt counter
Too many attempts on PUK blocks use permanently.
Two ways of Storing Data in SIM
1. As GSM Files
The data used for Telco and GSM operation are all stored over the files.
Telco/operator can change the Data this file through RFM in a secure channel.
Only upon successful verification of file access condition a file can be read.
All files are protected by access conditions.
2. As application data within an STK application as instance data.
mChek stores all its secured encrypted information within application data. All the
information stored is in persistent objects. Only mChek Server can access these
data through mChek OTA platform.
                                                                                                         by
                                                                                                    Srikanth Sri

Indian IT companies among 10 worst paymasters in world

Indian companies are among the world’s 10 lowest paying employers in the IT space, with their mid-to-senior level staff getting an average salary of USD 38,767 (about Rs 21.5 lakh) per annum – less than one-fourth of the IT pay package at globally top-paying Swiss firms.
Salaries in the IT sector of Switzerland are the highest in the world at an average of USD 168,211 (about Rs 93 lakh) per annum, as per a study titled ‘World wide IT Salary 2012’.
The study, conducted by global recruitment service provider MyHiringClub.com, has ranked India at eighth spot among 10 worst IT paymasters globally.

Indian IT companies among 10 worst paymasters in world

On the other hand, Switzerland stands at the top spot among the top-paying nations in the IT sector.
The study, which was conducted in August this year, took into account the average salaries for people with four and more years of experience for the Indian and other companies.
The report compared the total annual cash compensation and total remuneration information for IT staff in more than 6,000 companies across 40 different countries and found that employers in western Europe are the best paymasters.
It also found that compensation in developed countries focus more on variable factors, such as bonus schemes, to attract staff. At the same time, the emphasis remains on cash compensation in the lower-paying countries.
“Experienced IT managers are highly sought-after in India and there is strong competition to attract and retain skilled employees. MNCs rely heavily on Indian IT managers, so they need to ensure their pay is competitive.
“Although pay in Asia and Eastern Europe tends to be much lower, it would be difficult for firms to outsource the IT manager role to these regions. Instead, we may see a migration of IT skills from lower paying nations to places in Western Europe and North America,” MyHiringClub.com CEO Rajesh Kumar said.
Interestingly, IT managers in India fare better than their counterparts in neighbouring China, where the average annual compensation package were lower at USD 38,624.
In addition, IT employees in India, scored better than their peers in Bulgaria, Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Malaysia, where the average annual salaries were even lower at USD 23,745, USD 29,831, USD 33,768, USD 33,965, USD 34,107 and USD 36,790 respectively.
Among the best IT salaries paying countries Belgium bagged the second position with an average salary of USD 144,980, followed by Denmark (USD 136,542), the US (USD 128,632) and the UK (USD 127,890).

Samsung GALAXY Camera with HD Touch Screen running Android 4.1

Samsung introduces GALAXY Camera with full HD Touch Screen running Android 4.1 which I think is the revolution in the digital camera industry. Samsung is really crazy now a days and after introducing Galaxy Note 10.1 and Galaxy Note II now this camera will surly pick up the reputation of them which was down due to the sue case file by Apple and in the end Samsung have to bay one billion dollar.  After the introduction of camera in smartphones it looks like that soon digital camera will become unavailable but this gadget will surly revive the digital camera industry and I am sure that all other companies will start making some thing like this.

Samsung GALAXY Camera Features

Smart PRO MODE – We all have digital cameras or mobile phone cameras in our hands now a days and we act like a photographer or movie maker in our daily lives but the end result is what always disappoint us. Taking pictures or shooting video is not an easy thing to do and only the professional photographers know how to use the gadget to take full advantage from it. Samsung GALAXY Camera has solve this problem and now you can take stunning, high quality and detailed pictures with just one click of a button. No matter what is the speed of the scene its Action Freeze feature will take the blur free picture and with full color details.

Slow Motion Video – If you are one of those who wants to capture the daily moments of your life in High Definition but with slow speed than this is the camera for you. With 120 frames per second you don’t need to slow your video with the help of any software because it will automatically capture the video in slow motion. With 720×480 resolution, 21x Optical Zoom and 120 frames per second you can unveils the nature’s most astonishing secrets with your own camera.

4.7 inch HD Super Clear Touch Display – This is something new to digital camera world but astonishing 4.7 inches HD Super Clear capacitive Touch screen display you don’t have to watch your photos on your computer, TV or on your smartphone. It has 308 pixels per inch screen which means full picture quality and color depth for superior experience.
Voice Control – Have you ever try to control your digital camera with your voice, if not than its time to do so. Don’t search the feature in the camera menu and waste time, just talk to your camera and it will enable the feature you want.

Photo Wizard – You don’t need to rush to your home after talking picture in order to edit them because now you can edit your pictures right at the spot. It has 65 powerful editing features which makes it one of its own kind. You don’t have to worry about the processing power because it has quad core processor built into it for superior performance.

Shoot and share in real time – I know that in real life when you take pictures you edit them on your computer first and than than upload it but imagine if you edit upload and share photos with your friends at the spot you take the picture with WIFI and 3G option. You can connect with 8 WIFI enabled devices at a time.

Samsung GALAXY Camera Comparison with Nikon and Nokia

Samsung GALAXY Camera is no doubt the revolution in the digital camera industry and so you will be able to buy this gadget in your local market. Still they have not disclose the price of this beast but surly it will be worth it. 🙂